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閱讀理解關于推論題解題技巧-2019年高起點英語復習資料-江蘇成考

江蘇成人高考網www.lwsqtl.com 發布時間: 2018年12月01日

閱讀理解關于推論題解題技巧-2019年高起點英語復習資料-江蘇成考


題干中含有infer,conclude的推理題稱為推論題。請求推出的定論也許與文章宗旨有關,也許聯系不大,但不論怎么,碰到這種推理題,都應盡也許在速讀完全文后再做,由于它的綜合性較強。與宗旨有關的推論題,能夠仔細閱讀文中表達宗旨的有關句;在讀完文章后,掃一下選項,掃除不太也許的選項(如:與原文顯著相對立的,說到了原文找不到根據的實際、細節或觀念),將剩余的選項回原文尋覓言語根據,相互對照,能夠由原文外表文字信息合理推出來的,即為準確答案。

例1

People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some rela-tionship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic(預言的)because a few have come true; they neglect or fail to notice the many that have not.

Consider also the belief that "the phone always rings when I'm in the shower. "If it does ring while you are in the shower, the even will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register(留下形象).

People. want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for example, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths "happen in

threes. "Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the

time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as

their "happening together" is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, the period of time

is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such beliefs.

We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an auto-mobile than the average person. Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling ex-plains, "Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values: careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy," This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.

Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(慎重的)in drawing conclusions. The "evidence" of everyday life is sometimes misleading.

What can be inferred from the passage?

A. Happenings that go unnoticed deserve more attention.

B. In a series of misfortunes the third one is usually the most serious.

C. People tend to make use of evidence that supports their own beliefs.

D. Believers of misfortunes happening in threes are cautious in interpreting events.

閱讀一下選項,B與D在原文找不到根據,而C與文章首句People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some relationship.意思不符,所以均應掃除。文章榜首段和第二段各舉了一個比如:榜首段指出大家由于一些愿望成真而忽略了大都愿望沒有成為實際這一實際;第二段指出大家老是訴苦“每次淋浴電話就響”,但卻忽略了大大都淋浴時電話并不響這一實際。這兩個比如都闡明大家易于記住標明某種聯系的少量事情,而對大都事情留意不行。因而A為準確答案。

例2

Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person's gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you per- mitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up(審察)and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interac-tion. You need to emit a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contact, what sociologist Erving Golfman(1963)calls“a dimming of the lights.’’

It can be inferred from the paragraph that

A.every glance has its significance

B.staring at a person is an expression of interest

C.a gaze longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable

D.a glance conveys more meaning than words

閱讀一下選項,能夠先掃除8與C,由于上文并未評論這兩點;再看一下文中的邏輯構造,剛開端幾句從總的方面論說:Exchange a glance with someone,then look away.Do you realize that you have made a statement.*Hold the glance for a second longer,and you have made a different statement.Hold it for 3 seconds,and the meaning has changed again.每一瞥的意義隨時間安排長短改變而改變,接著舉例闡明在不一樣場合中的具體情況。由此可知,A:每一瞥均有其自身的意義(即各瞥意義不一樣)為準確答案,D所說到的對比,在原文中找不到根據,應當掃除。

例3

A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades.

It can be inferred from the passage that maj or universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe .

A.rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students

B.punishment is more effective than rewarding

C.failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards

D.discouraging the students’anticipation for easy rewards is a matter of urgencv

這是文中Eisenberger舉的一個比如(第二句),其意圖是為了闡明Eisenberger的觀念:假設教師老是讓學生關注獎賞,或許對體現通常的學生也給高分,那么學生們終究都會不求進步——A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students,A表達的恰是此意。

例4

The human brain contains lo thousand million cells and each of these mav have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used tO discourage US and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human—like ability,but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon. In only lo or 20 years perhaps,we will be able to assemble a machine as compiex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelli-gent by loading in the right software(軟件)or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. Once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon's long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe.

As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the con- struction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of peo-ple, will he within our power.

It can be inferred from the passage that

A. after the installation of a great number of ceils and connections, robots will be capable of self-reproduction

B. with the rapid development of technology, people have come to realize the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability

C. once we make a machine as complex as the human brain, it will possess intelligence

D. robots will have control of the vast, man-made world in space

準確答案為B。文章榜首段開端時敘說由于人腦極端雜亂,致使咱們掃除了制作智能機器人的也許性,但從第二旬后半有些開端闡明存在這種也許性;第二段首句進一步必定這種也許性:I think it certain that in decades,not centuries,machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors.第三段以智能機器人在將來的使用必定其呈現的也許性,由此能夠推出B項為準確答案:跟著科技的迅速發展,有也許制作出智能機器人。

You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger’s eyes.Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an eleva-tor,you will make the other person exceedingly uncomfortable,and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself.

例5

Despite the good news, civil engineers aren't resting on their successes. Pinned to their drawing boards are blue prints(規劃)for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even greater security to cities where earthquakes often take place.

In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a build- ing off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its founda- tion to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake's vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the op- posite direction.

The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, that would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.

It can be inferred from the passage that in minimizing the damage caused by earth- quakes attention should be focused on

A. the increasing use of rubber and steel in capital construction

B. the development of flexible building materials

C. the reduction of the impact of ground vibrations

D. early forecasts of earthquakes

有關抗震方法會集在第二段,其間第二句指出:Later,people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. 由此可知,削減地震損壞的方法是削減地上轟動所形成的沖擊,C項符合題意,為準確答案。D項為無關答案,而A項與B項僅僅抗震資料的品種,其意圖依然是為了削減地上轟動形成的沖擊;實際上,只要能抗震,別的資料也行,所以應掃除它們。

例6

People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some rela- tionship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic(預言的)because a few have come true; they neglect or fail to notice the many that have not.

Consider also the belief that "the phone always rings when I'm in the shower". If it does ring while you are in the shower, the even will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register(留下形象).

People want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for exam-ple, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths "happen in threes". Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as their "happening together" is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, the period of time is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such be-liefs.

We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an auto-mobile than the average person. Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling ex-plains, "Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values., careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy," This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.

Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(慎重的)in drawing conclusions. The "evidence" of everyday life is sometimes misleading.

It can be concluded from the passage that

A. there is some truth even in the wildest dreams

B. one should take notice of other people's merits

C. there is no order or pattern in world events

D. we should not base our conclusions on accidental evidence

這道題為這篇文章的最終一道題,所以請求推出的定論也許在最終一段:Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(慎重的)in drawing conclusions.The“evidence”of everyday life is sometimes misleading.由此能夠推出:不該當以隨機根據為根底得出定論(由于它們有誤導性)。因而D為準確答案。


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